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The Objective Of Zakat Theology – Essay

The socket has been introduced in pre-colonial Malaysia. Before the British colonial Malaysia, the village in the country, as in other parts of the world developed through land settlement or colonization. One of the popular methods was the “collective Pondok system”, which was particularly common in the Muda Region of Kedah. By this system, a group of settlers would gather around and a person who is well -versed in Islamic Knowledge or who had already established himself as a religious teacher .After the they found a suitable place , they will build their “Pondok” (huts) around a Madras; a religious center for worship as well as teaching. In the case where the group has been established, they would invite a religious teacher from elsewhere to set up a Madras among them.This religious teacher was also the “Imam” of the community, in the sense that he led five prayers daily in the mosque or “madsarah.”

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The group of peasant will be going out to open land around the clusters of their “Pondok”, leaving their children to the teacher for religious education at day time. For those wives who are unable to work with their spouse in the land also will obtained religious instruction from the teacher. The peasants will receive religious at least one or twice a week and longer on Friday because it was a day of rest. They will spend more time in the mosque than the field.

As an appreciation for the service provided by the teacher, the peasants usually will collectively clear a piece of land and cultivate if for the teacher. Slowly, as the land become more productive and the production level of each peasant family exceeds the “nisab of 480 Gantang” [1] for each harvesting, the peasant family would pay skate at their 10 % of the gross yield of the paddy. According to “Afifudin”, those early days all the skate form a specific group in the Pondok system would go to the teacher. If a group of 50 sacked paying peasants would contribute a minimum of 2400 Gantang each year .As time goes by, the wealth of the teacher can be accumulated. The teacher can use the socket for the expansion of Madras.

During the colonial period in Malaysia especially Kelantan, zakat was administered by imam,who is is the local religious leader managed the zakat collection and surpervised by the division of inherited party.In order to finance the intensified activities ,the state required imams to surrender part of the zakat they collected at the village level.However,this menthod is only partially successful due to the British regime replaced Grahman’s ,the “Islamic administration” .The Grahman took charge of civil administration ,he divested the imams of their “civil” function .which were transfer to the headman (ketua kampong) .

According to secret institution in Malaysia .During British Colonial Period , The segregation between religion, custom and temporal matters took place during this period. All Islamic and Malay customs related matters were administered by a special body known as Majlis Agama Islam Negeri (MAIN). Other than that, the rest came under the purview of the British civil and criminal law system (Matters associated with socket were administered by MAIN. Accordingly, in Zakat Satu Tinjauan, Kelantan was the first state to establish the body which later became a model to other Malay States. Under this model, the Imam (spiritual leader) has been empowered to govern skate related matters and a portion of zakat collection would be delivered to the state government as a financial resource for Islamic affairs. That was how the administration of soaked developed until today which remain under the supervision of State Islamic Councils.

After the independence of Malaysia, New Economic Policy has been introduced.The zakat fund is use for investment purpose .In the early 1970s ,the minister of National and Rural Development ,Encik Ghaffae Baba,who was also the chairman of Mara ,urged all the state Religious Councils to invested substantial portion of their money (mostly derived from the collection of zakat) in Amanah Saham Mara .The objective is to eliminate the income gap between the ethnic group in Malaysia,especially the Muslim and Chinese.

The objective of Zakat

The primary objective of Zakat is to elevate the spirit of human being above the material acquisition.Consequently, Islam does not view the zakat payer as a mere of sore of funds,but as a person who always needs purification and cleansing, both spiritually and materially. The prophet (p) summaries this purpose in the ayat ,”sadaqa from hier wealth by which you might purify and cleanse them.

Zakat, when paid out of submission to the commad of Allah ,is a mean of purifying the soul of a Muslim from greed and miserliness.The vices of selfishness and greed must be controlled in order for human beings to elevate their spirits ,to succed in their social realtions in his life ,and gain admittance to paradise .Allah Almighty says, “Truly man is niggardly! (17:100) and “But people are prone to selfish greed.)Zakat is a purifier that trains Muslims to give and spend selflessly .It liberates their souls from the love of wealth and slavery to materials gains and acquisitions.

On top of that, zakat is a mean of training Muslims on virtues of generosity as much as it is a means of purificarion from greed .Being paid in repetitive pattern year after year ,regular zakat as well as zakat al-fitr train Muslims to give and spend for charitable purpose. The Qur’an describes believers as the righteous who have the virtue of spending for good reasons.The very second sura of the Qur’an begins, “Alif .Lam .Mim.That is the Book with no doubt .In it is guidance for the godfearing :those who believe in Unseen and establish the prayer and give of what we have provided for them.”This exhortation is reiterated many times in the Qur’an ,such as “Those who give away their wealth by night and by day ,secretly and openly ,”: “Those who give in times of both ease and hardship” and “The steadfast ,the truthful ,the obedient ,the givers ,and those who seek forgivness before dawn.”

Also ,once a person is trained to spend on public interests and to give to his brethren out of his own wealth, he is most likely to be freed from any urge to transgress on other people’s wealth and possessions.

Besides that, zakat trains people to acquire divine characteristic.If man purified of miserliness and greed and becomes accustomed to the habit of giving and spending, his soul is elevated abouve low human trait of covetousness, “Truly man is niggardly!” (17:100) and aspire to the height of Divine perfection, since one of the characteristic of Allah is absolute and unlimited mercy, powers, theoretical and practical .Allah obliges zakat in order to perfect human souls in graciousness to oher people ,as the prophet says, Train yourselves to attributes of Allah.This encouragement to spend throught zakat and voluntary charity resulted with time,u in the emergence of charitable trusts all over Muslim world,trusts devoted not only to helping the poor and needy but to all causes for human beings as well as animals.

In addition ,zakat is to shows expression of thankfulness to Allah .Gratitude and thankfulness are among the best characteristics of human beings.Zakat is an expression of thankfulness to Allah for the bouties .He gives on us .Allah, says al-Ghazali, has gives on human spiritual and materials bounties.Prayers and other acts of physical worship express gratitude for the blessing of creation, while zakat and other acts of donator worship express gratitude for the material blessings of Allah .The concept that zakat is thanks Allah for His bounties is s widespread and deeply rooted in the consciousness of Muslims that it is common to say that one must give zakat in thanks for the grace of sight ,hearing,health ,knowledge, etc.

Also, zakat stimulates personality growth in those who pay it .Through helping others overcome their financial difficulties , zakat payers are enriched by feelings of self-worth and fufilment . Zakat also helps offer the payer’s self to others and grow throught helping them and gives the payer a noble sense of victory over his base desires and material drives-over his owns shaytan.

Last but not least, zakat is to purifies wealth.This is because zakat is a right to the poor , not paying it means keeping something that belongs to others intermingled worth one’s wealth and this brings Allah’s wrath on the whole wealth. The Prophet (p) says, “If you pay zakat on your wealth ,you have taken away its evil.”

Types of zakat

Zakat is divided into several types :

  • Zakat of Income
  • Zakat of Savings
  • Zakat of Business
  • Zakat of KWSP/LTAT
  • Zakat of Share
  • Zakat of Livestock
  • Zakat of Gold and Silver
  • Zakat of Crops
  • Zakat of Income

Extra payment received by an individual from their employer or individual itself in the form of physical energy or physically or professional employment for specific day, month and yearly also been required to pay zakat.

Employment income includes: –

1) The annual salary

2) Other allowances

3) Unpaid wages

4) Other remuneration such as bonuses, etc.

Method Of Calculation

First Method

Using gross income (without deduction) 2.5% on gross income per year.

Example :

Total gross income per year : RM 25,000.00

Amount of zakat (2.5%) : RM 625.00

Monthly Payment : RM 625.00 /12 = RM 52.08

Second Method

Using the net income (Income year less allowable expenses per year) x 2.5%

Expenses allowed deduction (per year): -:-

Self : RM 8,000.00

Wife : RM 5,000.00

Children : RM 1,000.00

KWSP : 11% from gross income workers

Parents Contribution : RM (amount given) per month x 12 months

Contributions to organizations that pay the zakat (for example: Lembaga Tabung Haji, Takaful)

Zakat of savings

Contribution of workers and employer’s to KWSP People Provident Fund , Soldiers Provident Fund (LTAT) are also required to pay zakat as the concept is similar to savings but the different is savings of KWSP and LTAT could not be withdraws anytime wherenever they like and it is subject the rules.

Fixed Deposit

Fixed deposit of RM 100,000 was kept for a year without the excluded (assumed nisab charity at that RM 9430.00)

Then charity is required to produce are: RM 100,000 x 2.5% = RM 2.500

Regular Deposit

Method Of Calculation

(Duration haul is January 5, 1999 until February 7, 2000) (Assuming nisab of charity at that RM 3,323.50)

So zakat are :

(Balances with lower interest bank refused WITH) X 2.5%

(RM 9,115.00 – RM 115.00) x 2.5% = RM 225.00

Zakat of Business

Zakat been given out by Sole Propirate, Partnership, Cooperative Society, Societies and Organization which had reached one year and the time limit.

Method Of Calcutions

[ ( Current Assets – Current Liability ) + Coordination x Percentage of Muslims Share x ZAKAT ABILITY ( 2.5 % ) ].

Zakat of KWSP

Contributions of employees and employers into the Employees Provident Fund (EPF), Lembaga Tabung Angkatan Army (LTAT),or the like imposed zakat as conceptually the same as saving money, but with the difference amount of savings, LTAT and so on shall not be issued at anytime because and subject to regulations that is fixed.

CALCULATION METHOD :

METHOD 1

2.5% of the contribution that issued once money issued.

METHOD 2

2.5% of contribution every employee is based on the annual statement

Zakat of shares

Zakat which is given out for investment which hasreachedh its time limit and minimum value.

METHOD OF CALCULATION

2.5 % the value of lowest share – share which is own for one year minus for shared borrowed.

If the lowest value is not determined, use the value beginning early in the year or in the year or whichever is the lowest.

For shareholders which must be owned by investors. Muslims in the long term to gain control a company or firm so his payment for zakat will be based on the calculations that it will not affect the the importance of other Muslims to get hold of the company.

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If any of the owner’s shares has not reached one year, but the whole property being changed for a number of time for one year from shares to cash and vice versa, so use the lowest value with the mixture of money and shares,shares with basic to count zakat multiply 2.5 %.

Zakat of Livestock

Livestock zakat is property zakat that required to be taken out in perfect the conditions. Domestic animal that obliged to pay zakat is among them such as goat, , cattle , camel, sheep, buffalo. Prophet S.A.W said ” From Muaz Ibnu Jabal, had said, RasulullahS.A.W was sending me to Yaman and ask me to collect zakat from each of 30 cows, 1 lamb musinnah (1 female cattle aged up to 3 years ) and every 30 cows, tabi’ or tabiah ( 1 male or female cattle aged up to 2 years).” The livestock that we would like to give a zakat must be perfect and no defects such as missing the foot or hand and so on.

COWS/BUFFALOES

Quantities

Zakat Amount / Sex

30-39 tail

1 tail, age 1 year / male

40-59 tail

1 tail, age 2 year / female

60-69 tail

2 tail, age 1 year / male

70-79 tail

1 tail, age 1 year / male

and 2 tail, age 2 year / male

80-89 tail

2 tail, age 2 year / female

90-99 tail

3 tail, age 1 year / male

100-109 tail

1 tail, age 2 year / female

and 2 tail, age 1 year / male

110-119 tail

2 tail, age 2 year / female

and 1 tail, age 1 year / male

120 tail above

tail, age 2 year / female

and 3 tail, age 1 year / male

GOATS

Quantities

Zakat Amount / Sex

40-120 tail

1 tail, age 2 year / male or female

121-200 tail

2 tail, age 2 year / male or female

201-399 tail

3 tail, age 2 year / male or female

Subsequent additions : Every of 100 tail plus

plus 1 tail, age 2 year / male or female

SHEEP

Quantities

Zakat Amount / Sex

40-120 tail

1 tail, age 1 year/ male @ female

121-200 tail

2 tail , age 1 year / male @ female

201-399 tail

3 tail, age 1 year/ male @ female

Subsequent additions : every 100 tail

increased by 1 tail,age 1 year / male @ female.

Zakat of Silver and Gold

Gold and silver is a mineral that is required to charity. This is because these metals are very useful as it uses an exchange value of all things. As for other jewelry than gold and silver like diamond, pearl, silk, copper, are not obligatory zakat on it.

Nisab zakat gold used = 200gram

Gold zakat Nisab unused = 85gram

Zakat Of Crops

Zakat which is upon basic food which has reached the stage of satisfaction for the state which has 363 gantang / 1300 kg like paddy, wheat, cereals and so on.

 



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