His leadership style is Authoritarian autocratic. This style is used when leaders advise their employees what they want completed and how they want it capable, without getting the advice of their followers (Lewin, 1939). Koro is driven by his vision of a patri-lineal leadership restoring the integrity of his people. He is determined that the male line be unbroken. Koro is a very stubborn, harsh, severe chief who dominates in everything that the people do. When he believes in something, he under no circumstances changes his decisions. He is definite and powerful in all that he says and does and he hardly ever appreciates others work and effort. Koro is defensive with his beliefs and opinions and is blind towards any proof that opposes his faith. His leadership style is not people-oriented at all as he is selfish, isn’t sympathetic or sensitive and never considers other people’s feelings. However he is absolutely honest to his tikanga – to his understanding of Maori culture and customs and to the teachings of his ancestors. But with that honesty comes stubbornness and a pride and that’s what trips him up.
Pai – Koro’s grand-daughter
Paikea is a servant leader. According to Michael McKinney (2000) is an individual who maintain what is best for all individuals even if it may not be in their individual concern to do so. A custodial position must be approached as a short-term role, preserving something greater than the self-values of long-term and long-lasting value. This is a thought of mind that focus on the job at hand and not on what the leader may achieve from the situation. It implies a caring and concerned connection between leaders and followers; individuals enthused by their essential best interests.
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Pai was a strong willed girl who was born to be a leader even though koro didnt see that straight away. Persistence is a key factor of a leader. Pai was a great leader and showed many leadership qualities such as loyalty, strength and confidence. Her grandfather koro was always trying to block out all the leadership skills she portrayed as he wanted the new chief to be a male as it was part of their tradition. Pai faces many challenges caused by herself, Koro and her culture which she handles them with maturity and determination. She never gives up and is never disheartened by the fact that she is a girl and is over looked by her grandfather. Pai falls in ‘extraversion’ personality of leadership as she displays throughout the movies the traits of warmth, seeking novelty and excitement, assertive, cheerful, and talkative and action oriented.
Critique of effectiveness as a leader:
Koro was a very effective leader as he took charge over his people and the old traditions were very important to him and he wanted everyone else to feel the same way. Koro could see the people get more distant and realised his leadership is not working so he started to search for a leader. Koro spent his life looking for a new leader he could not see that Pai was right in front of him.
Koro refuses to acknowledge Pai as leader despite her constantly showing herself to be more competent than any of the boys. In the film when Koro screams, “You don’t mess around with sacred things,” you can feel the strength of his belief but Pai is equally determined, and so the battle is joined. However in the end he accepts Pai as a leader.
Paikea was a strong willed girl who was born to be a leader even though koro didn’t see that straight away. Persistence is a key factor of a leader.Throughout the movie, Pai has to not only fulfill the tribe’s expectations; she has to go beyond them. Not only does she carry out her role brilliantly, she realizes that there is a need for the whale rider and steps up to fulfill her role. For example, at her first school concert, when all her peers were misbehaving, Pai continues to sing, keeping her focus, determined to prove that she is serious about the tribe’s culture and her ambitions to become the whale rider. This event proved to the community that Pai cared more for the tribe than most of the other boys.
Pai tried many ways to change this fact and expectation and prejudice. For example, she overcomes this challenge by learning the ways of the tribe, including chants, the art of the taiaha and actively participating in community life. Pai worked very hard to impress Koro and hence she is a very effective leader.
The type of power held:
Koro hold legitimate power. It refers to different types of professional positions. Koro has high expectations for the local community and is deeply disappointed when he realises that there will be no son and heir to continue as Chief. Even though he loves Pai, he will not allow himself to see her potential as a leader because she is a girl. The struggle to find an appropriate leader and how leadership is needed to sustain a successful community was present in Koro’s leadership style.
Pai holds referent power that is gained by organization. Pai is very strong willed, powerful and brave. Her qualities and skills are noticed by all of the people around her, as her bravery carried her through such difficult times where she felt neglected and Koro said that everything went wrong after she was born. When Pai knew she had the qualities to be the next chief and Koro didn’t register, she persisted through his rudeness and eventually became the next chief in training. This is the type of power she had.
How they used this power:
Koro, the leader of a community that was once dominated by ancient rules and laws passed down many generations, struggles to find a suitable leader who can improve the way of life and bring back the traditions and laws that were once obeyed by the people. Koro is blind to this though because he believes that the next leader has to be a boy hence Koro did not use his power to his maximum.
Throughout the movie, Paikea shows resilience, persistence and dignity all good qualities of a leader. She never gives up and is never disheartened by the fact that she is a girl and is over looked by her grandfather. We see her testing the old ways, and undertaking the difficult demands of traditional soldier practice. It is she who goes into the sea to bring back Koro’s prize possession. She used her power to the betterment of the community. Throughout the movie, Paikea battles her way so that Koro sees that she is good enough to become the leader hence she used her power well.
Discussion / evaluation to leadership theory
Using the trait theory, with Pai, she is adaptable to situations, is assertive, co-operative, energetic, persistent, self- confident and is willing to assume responsibility and is diplomatic and tactful. Several elements of Pai’s leadership is displayed, example her comments about smoking and health, fixing the rope, learning about her culture, participating in the life of the community. As Paikea exerts herself to Koro, she shows skills of a leader. For example, she shows confidence in standing up for what she thinks is right. When Koro yelled or got angry at Paikea she did not hold a grudge or shut everyone out, she kept fighting!
In one scene in the film, Pai invites Koro to a concert where she is to perform a speech in her native language (Te Reo). She tells him that he is her guest of honour. The scene opens with teacups laid out and people bringing food. Pai requests that a chair is left for her grandfather, but he doesn’t turn up. She makes her speech despite her huge disappointment that Koro is not there to see her. She is announced the winner of the speech competition.
Using Great Man theory with Koro, he has a lot of rules he has to live by. He is the boss. The question is why does Pai support Koro even though he is so harsh to her? She understands some of his concerns about being a leader.
Type of organisation, level of seniority and its effects
On the East coast of New Zealand, the Whangara citizens consider their existence there dates reverse a thousand years or more to a single ancestor, Paikea, who fugitive death when his canoe turn over by riding to coast on the backside of a whale. From then on, Whangara chiefs always the first-born is male who have been considered Paikea’s descendants. Pai a 12-year-old girl in a patriarchal New Zealand tribe, believe she is meant to be the new chief. However her grandfather Koro is restricted by custom to pick a male leader. Pai loves Koro more than any person in the world, but she must fight him and a thousand years of custom to fulfil her destiny.
Koro is the chief of the village and has the most seniority as he is the head of the traditional tribe. The people in the village took pride in their tradition and culture which enabled him to be listened and obeyed.
Individual culture and its effect(s)
In the film Maori tradition and culture has been displayed and this formed the beliefs between the two characters, Koro and Pai. Both of them cared for their village and dedicated themselves into the Maori culture and tradition for have a successful outcome. The film shows that culture is important and that working together makes everything better.
Other leadership concepts and ideologies identified
The film shows that no matter who the person may be, with the qualities of a leader, one can bring unity to the tribe. The film also shows how resilience is a significant aspect of being a leader. Pai had spirit, every time Koro shot her down she would get back up and keep trying.
It also has an implication of women’s rights and equality between men and women.
In the film Pai had all the qualities of a leader, still she was dominated because according to the culture women cannot be leaders.
The film especially highlights the fact that leaders have to respect the other members of the community as well as having the right characteristics of leadership. I also learnt good and bad trait in a leader from the roles of Pai and Koro. The community scenes on the Marae, working together to help the whales, paddling in unison in the waka at the end shows the togetherness of the community.
IN GOOD COMPANY
In Good Company is a comedy. Drama, romance movie that was released in 2004.This movie commences with Waterman Publishing and its flagship magazine Sports America being acquired by Globecom International in a corporate takeover.
The two main leaders which have been chosen for this assignment are Dan Foreman (Dennis Quaid) and Carter Duryea (Topher Grace). Dan Foreman is a 51 year old head of advertising sales for a major sports magazine that has 20 years of experience as well. He is happily married with two daughters and who is also expecting a new child. Dan faces a life changing event when he was demoted to second in order of advertising and was replaced by Carter Duryea. Carter is 26 year old, newlywed of 7months and was dumped by his wife just as he gets the promotion. He talks a good game about sales but he doesn’t have any experience from the field. Robbins and Judge (2007) defined leadership as ability to control a group toward the success of a vision or set of goals.
The leadership style showed by Dan Foreman was charismatic leadership. The Charismatic Leader gathers group through dint of behaviour and charisma, rather than any form of exterior power. It is attractive to watch a Charismatic Leader working the region as they move from person to person. They pay much consideration to the individual they are chatting to at any one instant, making that person think like they are, for that time, the most significant person in the world.
Charismatic Leaders pay a great deal of concern in scanning and reading their surroundings, and are good at picking up the mood and concerns of both individuals and big audience. They then will sharpen up their actions and words to suit the situation. In the film, when the employees were fired from their job, Dan took responsibility to inform them because he was concerned about their feelings, and that he would be able to comfort them rather than Carter as he has been working with them for many years.
Musser (1987) notes that charismatic leaders seek to inspire both commitment to ideological goal and also commitment to themselves. The extent to which either of these two goals is leading depends on the underlying motivation and needs of the leader vary anything. Despite their charm and perceptible concern, the Charismatic Leader may well be rather more concerned with themselves than anybody else.
The leadership style showed by Carter Duryea was Transactional leadership. The transactional leader works through creating clear arrangement whereby it is clear what is necessary of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following instructions.
When the Transactional Leader assigns work to a subordinate, they are measured to be fully liable for it, whether or not they have the ability to carry it out. Transactional leadership is based in possibility in that prize or penalty is conditional upon presentation. Carter is been appointed as the head of marketing for the Sports America magazine to increase the sales for the company. According to Ohio state studies (1940) transactional leader is considered as task oriented.
Effectiveness of a leader
Dan is a effective leader. Dan motivates his employee and is very loyal to them. He is outspoken person and takes stand for his employees. Every employee respects him and trusts him.
Carter wasn’t effective leader. He doesn’t have experience in the job which was given to him but he was very good in his job. He was outspoken and very convincing since the first day at work.
Type of power(s)
Dan has charisma power- person who has charisma will have optimistic influence on workers and create the chance for interpersonal pressure. Dan is very effective and when he speaks, people listen to him. In the film when he question to “Teddy K” everyone listen to him carefully. He also has Referent power: comes from being trusted and respected. The new boss (Carter) respects and trusts him.
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Carter Duryea holds legitimate power. The power describe leader has position of power on his team. In the film Carter is head of marketing company, he is very good in decision making and convinces people. He is very active and intelligent in his work.
Carter uses his power in very effective way. He uses his power to motive others and clearly identify common goal of company. But some time he abuses his position power by firing employee.
Scene from movie
A scene from the movie that shows the leadership analyses for two leaders is the when Dan asked question to Teddy K when he was talking about to put one section about computers in sports America magazine. Then Dan stopped him and asked “I don’t understood what you are trying to say”. It shows how effective he is while asking question to Teddy k and everyone is listening to him. Even Mr Teddy K impressed by him and said” Dan Foreman… Sports America, you ask some excellent questions.
Another situation in the movie shows Carter leadership when Carter is discussing about sacking with Dan. He explained to Dan he have to cut off same salary by sacking people from sales department. Carter is transactional leader and always follows his company procedure and standard. Dan wants to save his old employee and said to Carter my salary is bigger than them why don’t you sack me instead of them. But Carter convinces him because he has to follow his boss’s orders.
Type of organisation, level of seniority and its effects
Sports America magazine owned by Globecom, it is a national sports magazine and Dan spent 20 year of his life as head of advertising sales department. After that multimedia company buy it and assign Carter as new boss.
Carter is on the most senior position in multimedia company. He is responsible for company sales and managing staff. He is assigned leader and power to reward and punish anyone in the organisation.
Individual culture and its effect(s)
Culture and tradition plays very important role both Dan carter lives. Dan is 51 year old man has loving family. He has two daughters Alex (18 year old) and Jana (16 year old). He has been very happy from his family and doing very well in his professional life. Carter is 26 year old young man and very successful in his professional life. His wife left him in the beginning of the film. He is executive officer in the organisation. He fell in love with Alex (Dan’s daughter) which creates uncomfortable situation between them.
Contingency theory is illustrate to large extend in this film. According to this leadership theory leader effectiveness in group is depends on two factors: leader task or relation motivation and changes in situations. The scale least preferred co-worker is use to identify leader is task oriented or relation oriented. Leader who gets high marks on scale is people oriented and who got less mark on scale is task oriented. In the film Dan got high mark in least preferred co-worker because he is always concern about his employee. Even he is ready to leave his job to save employee work. On the other hand carter got less mark on scale because he is only concern about his task. He follows the orders given to him by the boss and never thinks about employee. He fired some employees from organisation as well.
The Lord of the Rings
The Fellowship of the Ring is an epic fantasy adventure film directed by Peter Jackson. This story is set in the world of Tolkien’s establishment, known as Middle Earth. It is based on the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings (1954-1955) created by JRR Tolkien. It was followed by The Two Towers (2002) and The Return of the King (2003). It is filmed in various locations in New Zealand in 2001.
In the story of a hobbit called Bilbo Baggins has stolen the ring from a hideous creature called Gollum. Somehow, this ring ends up with Frodo Baggins, Bilbo’s nephew and all of a sudden, Frodo is at the centre of this epic play involving the ring that he knows very little about. The Fellowship of the ring is established; including nine individuals in which are Gandalf, Legolas the elf, Gimli the Dwarf, Aragorn, Boromir and his three Hobbit friends Merry, Pippin and Samwise. They went through mountains, snow, darkness, forests, rivers and plains, facing evil and danger of every corner to destroy Fellowship of the Ring.
The two leaders which have been chosen for my assignment are Gandalf much like Aragorn as Strider. Gandalf is a Wizard of surpassing power and intelligence. He has awe-inspiring and the touchingly human qualities. Aragon hides an extraordinary amount of power, greatness, and knowledge under a humble exterior.
Gandalf is the transformational leader-leader who puts enthusiasm and power into all. They care about you and want you to success.
Transformational Leaders are always observable and will rise up to be counted rather than conceal behind their troops. They show by their attitudes and performance how everybody should behave. They also make continuous hard work to inspire and rally their followers, always doing the rounds, listening, comforting and enthusing. It is their reliable pledge as much as something else that keeps people going mainly through the darker period when some may query whether the dream can ever be achieved. Overall, they balance their mind between act that creates development and the psychological state of their supporters. Perhaps they are people-oriented and consider that victory comes first and last through deep and continuous commitment.
According to Stephen Warrilow (2013) “transformational leadership is all about values and meaning, and a purpose that transcends short-term goals and focuses on higher order needs.” Gandalf was the leader of The Fellowship of the Ring: getting the ring into Mordor to destroy was his goal but he was proved that that he capable of doing more and more. He was an adviser to Frodo and Aragorn and uninspired them both to grow to be better people and attain knowledge plus self actualisation (the higher order of needs). He clearly knew his vision and uninspired his followers to accomplish it.
Bernard M Bass (1985) says transformational leader is a type of leadership style that measures the influence of followers first. The followers of such a leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader. In movie Gandalf motivates Frodo to be brave and tells him if he doesn’t takes the ring to destroy, and then no one will destroy it and it won’t ever be destroyed. He inspired Frodo and he didn’t hesitate to continue but pleased Gandalf.
Aragorn is a charismatic leader. Charismatic leaders are often thought of as hero’s that are able to use their personal fascination to lead others. But that charismatic allure can be both an approval and a nuisance on society. That’s because charisma can be used for the good of a company for honourable reasons.
Conger & Kanungo (1998) describe five behavioural attributes of Charismatic Leaders that indicate a more transformational perspective image and expression, warmth to the environment, consideration to member needs, individual risk taking, performing unconventional behaviour.” Aragorn was a brave man: he saved the hobbits’ lives in Bree by fighting with the Uruk-hai and showed good leadership by saving the lives of the team members and also by making wise decisions.
The Charismatic Leader gathers supporters through dint of behaviour and charisma, rather than any form of external power. It is interesting to watch a Charismatic Leader running the area as they move from individual to individual. They pay much consideration to the individuals they are talking to at any one instant, making that individual feel like they are, for that point in time, the most significant individual in the world.
Charismatic Leaders pay attention in scanning and analysing their surroundings, and are good at picking up the moods and concerns of both individuals and big audiences. They then will sharpen their actions and expression to suit the circumstances. Charismatic Leaders use a wide variety of methods to supervise their picture and if they are not naturally charismatic, may practice attentively at developing their skills. They may prompt trust through observable selflessness and taking own risks in the name of their values. They show great self-confidence in their followers. They are very convincing and make very useful use of body words as well as oral language. The Charismatic Leader will typically connect themselves strongly to the personality of the group, such that to join the group is to become one with the leader. The Fellowship of the Ring Aragorn was sometimes unsure of his ability to lead others but when it came to his team members he did his level best to motivate them. When questioned about why he does not immediately offer proof of his identity to the hobbits in Bree, one of his answers is simply that he wishes the hobbits would count him as a friend without knowledge of his lineage indeed; he is tired of being constantly asked.
Musser (1987) notes that charismatic leaders seek to inspire both dedication to ideological goals and also commitment to themselves. The level to which either of these two goals is leading depends on the fundamental motivations and requirements of the leader amend anything. Despite their charm and perceptible concern, the Charismatic Leader may well be somewhat more anxious with themselves than anybody else. A typical experience with them is that whilst you are talking with them, it is like being immersed in a warm and pleasant shine, in which they are very persuasive. . In the film when Frodo decides to break the fellowship Aragorn obeys his decision by telling the hobbits that if I had the chance to go I would have gone with you to the end, into the very fires of Mordor” and then motivates others.
Effectiveness of a leader:
Gandalf is intelligent and relatively capable while people listen to him. Gandalf had high values; he appreciated everyone and wasn’t using his powers to arrange others but only to direct others. Aragon was thoughtful, trustworthy and open leader. The both leaders had clear idea and common aim to destroy ring and were very effective leaders.
Type of power
Gandalf have legitimate power. Legitimate power is the power that a leader gets by evasion due to his position in an organisation; a leader basically is distinguished from a follower due to the greater rights and responsibility he has than others i.e. additional rights that legitimate power bestows and distinguishes him from followers. He has some supernatural powers and a lot of knowledge about middle-earth. He also has referent power .This is at times thought of as charisma, charm, admiration, or appeal. Referent power comes from one person love and respecting another, and powerfully identifying with that person in some way. Celebrities have referent power, which is why they can manipulate everything from what individuals buy to whom they choose to office. In a workplace, a person with charm often makes everyone feel good, so he or she tends to have a lot of influence. Gandalf is 2nd wizard and he used his power to save fellowship of ring and fight with fire dragon which lead him to death. Gandalf used his power very fairly and he sacrificed his life to save his group.
Aragorn has charisma power: Charisma has been seen as politically dubious characteristics of individuals in the society and it has been searched the psychological mechanisms which lead to the emergence of charismatic leaders and their attraction to the people that follow them which describes a special person qualities making him capable inspire large number of people. Aragorn is a very effective leader and when he speaks, everyone listens and follows him. In the film when Gandalf is dead, Aragon starts leading the group; everyone follows him without any questions. Aragorn also used his power to motivate others and lead them in correct path. He has the qualities of encouraging people and making them believe him.
Type of organisation, level of seniority and its effect(s)
The fellowship of the ring was destroyed in Rivendell fictional second age of middle-earth. The Fellowship involved nine members who joined the journey to Mordor to destroy ring in Mount Doom fires. The mission included four hobbits Frodo Baggins and his three friends Merry, Pippin and Samwise, with travelling companions Gandalf a wizard, Aragorn a human ranger, two man from Gondor, Gimli a dwarf warrior and Legolas an Elven prince. Gandalf was leader of the group and also Aragorn was assigned as the leader when Gandalf was killed.
Gandalf was chosen as leader of the fellowship of the ring. The group approved him as a leader because he was the eldest and valued person He was a very effectual leader; every one respects him and obeys and follows his decisions.
Aragorn was the only king in companionship but he never used his power as a king, but he inspired and motivated people by using his leadership qualities. According to Great man theory one having inherit capacity of leadership – great leaders are born with traits that make them natural leaders. Aragorn took responsibilities of the situations and came up with solutions to solve them.
Individual culture and its effect(s)
Culture and ritual played very important part of both leaders life. Gandalf was 2nd wizard who fought with Saruman 1st wizard who abused his powers to destroy the mankind. Aragorn was king of the Gondor. No one knew that he was living in Rivendell as ranger after his father loss. Both Gandalf and Aragorn have done the best to keep mankind safe in middle-earth by leading Frodo in destroying the ring.
The film illustrates Ohio State studies (1940s) which states two dimensions of leader behaviour. First is Consideration where a leader exhibits concern for the welfare of the members of the group such as it is people oriented. Second is Initiating structure is where a leader defines how the tasks are to be accomplished by the group such as it is task oriented. In the film Gandalf is concerned of their follower’s emotion and opinions, but he was also in charge for mission which should be finished.