This chapter elaborates and discusses elements which contribute on the literature review. This chapter started with review of the job performance, follows by the literature review on leadership and then literature review on Islamic Leadership. This literature was about the relationship between Islamic Leadership principles towards Job Performance. The literature was then compressed into the conceptual framework that represents the organizing concept of the study conducted by the researchers.
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2.1 JOB PERFORMANCE
According to the Murphy 1989, Job performance is defines as behaviors that have a relationship to the goals of the organization. Besides that, other definition of job performance as action and behaviors that control under each individual that contributes to the organizational s goals and measured by the individual level of proficiency (Campbell, 1990). Kane (1986) defined job performance as “a record of outcomes achieved in carrying out the job function during the specified period”. Alternatively, Rotundo (2000) argues that this definition includes a variety of job behaviors and that some behaviors
contribute to the employee’s duties and responsibilities, while other behaviors still affect the goals of the organization but do not fall under duties and responsibilities. To understand the job performance is determine whether an individual job performance changes over time or still stable from year to year. Job performance can be improved by with leadership, training, work experience, and also by mentoring or coaching.
Job performance have to be differentiated between other measures of performance that are sometimes used interchangeably or maybe incorrectly so. The often way to measure job performance is a leader rate his or her employee’s job performance (Rotundo Maria, 2002). Some research has shown that leadership integrates a great deal of information in these ratings. Performance measurement systems usually focus on the supervisor or manager as the rater of the job performance.
As the leader, the challenge is determine on how it affect individual behavior and the work situations can be structured to achieve maximum employee job performance. Effective leadership generates improved motivation and effort.
Northouse (2011), said that being a leader is challenging, exciting plus rewarding, and carries a lot of responsibilities. A leader also should be fully aware of the followers and their interests, ideas, positions, attitudes, and motivations.
Leadership is showing the way and helping or inducing others to pursue it. This includes envisioning a desirable future, promoting a clear purpose or mission, supportive values and intelligent strategies, and empowering and engaging those entire concerned (Gill, 2011).
Allio (2009), in his article has listed the big five ideas; “(1) good leaders have good character, (2) there’s no best way to lead, (3) leaders must collaborate, (4) adaptability makes longevity possible and (5) leaders are self-made”.
However, a lot of the research in business and management has considered organizations as a religion neutral sphere, and as a result religion was not deemed worthy of study (Majeed, Khalid and Khan, 2011). As researchers keep on discussing about leadership, they only focused on Western business environment (Bass, 1999; Yukl, 2002; Fiedler, 1967; Stogdill, 1974).
2.3 ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP
The Qur’an and hadith (the everyday actions and sayings of the Prophet) has explained about leadership qualities some fourteen centuries ago have only been discussed and emerged in the modern times. “To thee a Book explaining All things, a Guide, a Mercy, And Glad Tidings to Muslims.” (Al-Nahl, 16:89). “And We appointed, from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command, so long as they persevered with patience and continued to have faith in Our Signs”. (As-Sajdah 32:24). Abbas Ali (2005) mentioned in his book, Islamic Perspectives On Management and Organization, Islamic Leadership is a set of shared influence process. The Quran clearly calls for a leader to be flexible and approachable to followers and they comfort for commitment with the presence of these qualities within an organization.
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) and Ibn Taimiya (1263-1328) opinion about leadership has been accepted. Ibn Khaldun (p,112) stated that several qualities are important for a leader like, tolerance towards weak, forgiveness of error, patience and hospitality toward guests. Lacking of these skills may decrease the quality of good leader. Next, Beekun and Badawi (1998), stated that, one of the definitions of Islamic Leadership is, the effort that takes by the leader to seeks the voluntary participations of followers in order to achieve the organizational objectives. Moreover, the leaders must be the role models in the organization and guide them in way of happiness in life (Abbasi, Rehman and Afsar, 2009).
According to Moten (2011) he stated that the Western secular societies do not have a clear picture of leadership phenomenon from an Islamic Perspective. He added that there are several factors to describe reasons for the need of Islamic Leadership (Moten, 2011). Firstly, there is no distinction between the spiritual and temporal affairs in Islam whereby both lies down and moving together encircling all spheres of human life, (Moten, 2011). To strengthen this statement, Islam teachings according to Iqbal and Mohamad (1962), “is not a departmental affair, it is neither mere thought, nor mere feeling, nor mere action; it is an expression of the whole man”. Secondly, Moten (2011) points out, the need for implementation of the Islamic Leadership is because based on central concept of Islam i.e., tawhid (unity and sovereignty of Allah), refuse the power of control and command to anyone but Allah, the creator and Nourishes of the universe. To support his statement, Moten referred the Qur’an (3:189, 6:57), “the command rests with none but Allah” to disclaim anyone who claims absolute right and power over anything. Next, Islam perceives that every individual and society activity is for the sake of Allah, Moten (2011). Relation between one creatures’s with other creatures is built upon his distinctive relation to Allah. Thus, it is not a dyadic relationship between two believers but it is a triadic relationship in that each is relating to other through Allah as the intermediary, Moten (2011).
After submitting the need for Islamic Leadership, Moten (2011) give his point of view on leadership in Islam. According to him, leadership in Islam is a process of communication and a moral activity between the equals directed towards reaching the organization goal, (Moten, 2011). He added, as the leader and the followers both understand the goal and actively joint together for the accomplishment of the goal, the accomplishment of that goal assumes the form of worship or ‘ibadah, hence, the leadership in Islam can be seen as ‘ibadah, (Moten, 2011).
The Qur’an, Sunnah, and the jurisprudence give a comprehensive code of laws: social, moral, political, administrative, economic, civil, religious, and ethical to guide the Muslim leaders to run Islamic organizations appropriately and effectively (Aabed, 2006).
Ali (2009) mentioned that, leader is obliged and illustrates a willingness to listen, openness, and concern in dealing with subordinates or follower. Islamic Leadership is defined as a group of leadership principles extracted from the Qur’an and the biography of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions, structured of good and ethical leadership essential to guide organizations appropriately and effectively. Moreover, it made up noblest Islamic traditions of science, worship, justice, and Ihsan(doing good) and to hammer these values in Muslim, (Khaliq, 2009; Khan, 2007). Besides that, Islam urged the leaders to pay attention to followers’ needs. It is because, it is trusteeship of Allah, a given responsibility given from him and a service to the mankind, (Toor, 2007). “If Allah puts anyone in the position of authority over the Muslims’ affairs and he secludes himself (from them), not fulfilling their needs, wants, and poverty, Allah will keep Himself away from him, not fulfilling his need, want, and poverty (Sahih Muslim)”.
Leadership is a responsibility which is shared by all adults in a Muslim society as Islam point of view (Mohsen, 2007). As pointed out clearly by Prophet Muhammad in one of the hadiths, “Every one of you is a shepherd and everyone is responsible for what he is shepherd of” (Bukhari and Muslim).
There are some sign for a Muslim that considered good in implementing Islamic values (Abdul Hakim, 2011). Islamic ideas in performance emphasize a high standard of trust, honesty and reliability toward overall behavior. The employee’s daily activities should be conducted in the strictest obedience to Allah SWT commandments (Dr. Abdullah Mohammed Seidu).
As mentioned by A. Hakim (2012), it is very important to understand the Islamic spiritual motivations, including faith, devoting and Islamic application rules. And they have to understand them completely (kaffah) spiritual motivation will give the urge to do the job as well as possible.
Therefore, leadership development is one of the important subjects in Islamic teachings (Majeed, Khalid and Khan, 2011). From an Islamic perspective, followings are some of the key attributes for effective leadership; Justice (al Adl), Trust (al Amanah) and Honesty (al Sidq). The organization performance and goals will be achieved in terms of employee performance and there comfort for commitment with the presence of these qualities within an organization. Following are three principles of Islamic Leadership.
2.3.1 THREE ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES
Justice (al Adl)
The management leaders must behave with team members equitable and fairly without any discrimination about their race, color or religion. Islam always called human being for doing justice to all. Besides that, the Qur’an also gives the direction to Muslims to be fair and just in any situation even if the decisions goes against their parents or themselves (Ather Syed Mohammad, Sobhani Farid Ahammad, 2007). Allah SWT says:
“O you, who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, aswitness to Allah, even as against yourselves or your parents or your kin and whether it be against rich or poor, for Allah protects both”.(Surah An-Nisa, Verse-135). According to Imam Hasan (2011), the concept of justice flows directly from the law giver Himself, Allah (SWT) so that the council of jurists having the legislative function interpreted by the law by the direct source is the Quran and Hadith to come at a just decision on issues that beneficial to the community. These concepts from the merciful Allah (SWT) frees any individual from accusations as all decisions flow and are based on Allah’s commands (Imam Hasan Qasim Okikiola, 2011).
Trust (al Amanah)
Trust plays an important role for a leader. Allah says in the Quran, “Those who faithfully observe their trusts and their covenants,” (23:08), and “Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to their owners and that when you judge between people you judge with justice; surely Allah admonishes you with what is excellent; surely Allah is Seeing, Hearing,” (04:58), and “O you who believe! Be not unfaithful to Allah and the Messenger, nor be unfaithful to your trusts while you know.” (08:27). Leaders in organization should be a trustworthy person and can be relying on (Alhabshi et. al, 1994).
According to Yunus Mohamad, (2011) amanah is from the word “Aman” that gives a means like peace, no fear or threat but in Islamic terminology it means honesty and fulfilling the rights of people and Allah SWT. Mohammad Yunus on May 02, 2011
Amanah is fulfilling responsibilities in a good manner, with all talent and potentials, it is an amanah but not fulfilling the responsibilities is a mistrust and deception.
“He it is that has made you inheritors in the earth: if, then, any do reject (Allah), their rejection (works) against themselves: their rejection but adds to the odium for the Unbelievers in the sight of their Lord: their rejection but adds to (their own) undoing.” (Fatir, 35:39).
Honesty (al Sidq)
According to Beekun and Badawi (2012), honesty of the leaders is considered as to the extent that there is ‘consistency between word and action.’ Leaders do what they say they are going to do. The Prophet Moses himself is labeled as “strong and trustworthy” by one of the damsels (as in chapter 28: 26) while the Prophet Joseph is cited as one who is truthful in the Holy Quran. (Chapter 12: 46) Similarly, the Prophet Muhammad during his youth used to be called Sadiq (the truthful) and Amin (the trustworthy).
Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991), said successful leaders are open with their followers, do not violate confidences, discreet and or carelessly reveal potentially harmful information.
As cited in Kirkpatrik and Locke (1991), Kouzes and Posner conclude: Honesty is absolutely important to leadership. If we are willing to follow a person, whether it is into a fight or into the boardroom, we first want to guarantee ourselves that the person is worth to be trusted. We need to know whether the person is being truthful, ethical, and principled. We want to be fully assured in the integrity of our leaders.
2.4 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Table 2.1 below was summary of the independent and dependent variables of this research. The summary illustrates relationship between Principles of Islamic Leadership and Job Performance.
Islamic Leadership Principles:
1. Justice (al – Adl)
2. Trust (al – Amanah)
3. Honesty (al – Siddiq)
Table 2.1: Independent variables and Dependent Variable
Figure 2.2 below illustrate the conceptual framework for this study. This figure demonstrates the relationship between Islamic Leadership Principles toward Job Performance.
Islamic Leadership Principles:
Justice (al- Adl)
Trust (al- Amanah)
Honesty (al – Sidq)
Figure 2.2: Conceptual Framework
This chapter appraises the relationship between Islamic Leadership principles towards Job Performance and the conceptual framework that presents the organizing concept of this study. Chapter 3 will discuss about the methodologies used by the researchers in order to collect and analyze the data of the study.